In this study, the protective effects of a blend of thymol and organic acids against the effects of Clostridium perfringens type A on chicken intestinal epithelial cells were investigated and compared to bacitracin, a widely used antibiotic in poultry production.
The concept of “gut health" is not well defined, but this concept has begun to play a very important role in the field of animal science. However, a clear definition of GIT health and the means by which to measure it are lacking. In vitro and ex vivo models can facilitate these studies, creating well-controlled and repeatable conditions to understand how to improve animal gut health.
The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of AviPlus®P (a microencapsulated blend of 25 % citric and 16.7% sorbic, 1.7% thymol, and 1% vanillin ) to reduce clinical NE and determine the signaling pathways associated with any changes.
Enterocytes exert an absorptive and protective function in the intestine, and they encounter many different challenging factors such as feed, bacteria, and parasites. An intestinal epithelial in vitro model can help to understand how enterocytes are affected by these factors and contribute to the development of strategies against pathogens.
Microencapsulated organic acids and botanicals have the potential to develop into important tools for the poultry industry. A blend of organic acids and botanicals (AviPlus®P) has previously shown to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter in chickens; however, changes to the microbiota of the jejunum and ileum have not been evaluated.
OA and NIC were always effective in a dose-dependent manner, even when the antibiotics failed. For several strains, selected combinations of OA or NIC with antibiotics increased the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics. Therefore, OA and NIC have potential to enhance the efficacy of conventional antibiotics against C. perfringens and E. cecorum.
The use of NIC allows us to properly combine pure compounds, according to the target to achieve. Thus, they represent a promising non-antibiotic tool to allow better intestinal health and general health status, thereby leading to improved growth performance.
4 days of supplementation with a microencapsulated blend made up of citric and sorbic acids, thymol, and vanillin enhanced the in vitro PBL functions of degranulation, oxidative burst, and nitric oxide production compared with the control diet. Collectively, the data suggest feeding broiler chicks a diet supplemented with a microencapsulated blend of citric and sorbic acids, thymol, and vanillin may prime key immune cells making them more functionally efficient and acts as an immune-modulator to boost the inefficient and undeveloped immune system of young chicks.
The objective of this project was to determine if feeding a microencapsulated product comprised of a blend of organic acids and botanicals (AviPlus®P) impacts the intestinal kinome of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).
Intestinal health is one of the most important aspects of animal production. The intestine acts as the main line of defense against pathogens and it is the organ deputed to nutrient absorption. Both functions have pivotal importance for animal health and production.
The general concern about animal welfare, especially for laying hens, is continuously increasing in consumers and farmers. This attention leads to spending time and efforts to understand if our birds are stressed or not, through many different indicators both deriving from animal observation (behavior, performance, fearfulness) and laboratory analysis (Alm et al., 2016; Rodenburg et al., 2008).
Six-hundred ROSS 308 broilers were allocated in 24 pens divided into 3 experimental groups (d0): the control diet (CTR), the control diet added with Galliacid®S at 300 ppm (GAL S), a microencapsulated blend of organic acids and natural identical flavours (EU patent 1391155B1; Vetagro srl, Italy), and the control diet added with a different blend of organic acids (WSB) added at 300 ppm.
Aim of the study was the investigation of alternative products which can modulate the intestinal microflora beyond the stomach barrier, obtaining animal growth performance comparable to the one obtainable with antibiotic growth promoters.
The present study aims to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation based on a blend of microencapsulated organic acids (sorbic and citric) and essential oils (thymol and vanillin) on chicken meat quality.
Thermal treatment of poultry feed is common practice to improve the biological and nutritional value of some ingredients (i.e., soybean) and to sanitize the feed from Salmonella or prevent pathogens and spoilage bacteria contamination (Leaver, 2008; Jones, 2011).
The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance and sanitary status of chickens receiving a control diet (CTR) and a feed containing a combination of citric acid, sorbic acid, thymol and vanillin microencapsulated (zootechnical additive 4d 3, EU Regulation No. 849/2012; AVIP).
Salmonella and Campylobacter are the two leading causes of bacterial-induced foodborne illness in the US. Food production animals including cattle, swine, and chickens are transmission sources for both pathogens. The number of Salmonella outbreaks attributed to poultry has decreased.
The first parameter that we are normally interested in when we are rearing animals is their live performance: this is the easiest way to have a return on investment (R.O.I.). Anyway, the improvement of animal health and management are useful as well to reduce the rearing costs (and even to achieve better production and growth).
We are all used to hear about the concept of synergy among different substances and to use this word in any area of interest addressing solutions that allows better results in animal husbandry. It is important to define what “synergy” stands for, particularly in the microbiological area
Essential oils are widely used as flavorants and food preservatives since many centuries. More recently, further biological properties have been attributed to this wide category of molecules and compounds that make them suitable active ingredients in cosmetics and supplements as well as feed additives.
Gut microbiota is one of the most important players in poultry intestinal and general health. During the last years, researchers increasingly focused on this microflora using cutting-edge techniques to detect the composition of the chicken gut microbiota: it is composed of Bacteria, fungi, Archea, protozoa, and virus with the bacterial compartment as the predominant one.
Healthy animals have optimal live performance and little need for veterinary interventions. As a consequence, the aim of animal rearing is to maintain them as healthy as possible for the highest return of the investment. There are multiple approaches to reach this ambitious goal: the first tool is good nutrition. It is important to correctly balance the nutrients intake to meet animal requirements during each phase of their productive life.
Kinky back is scientifically defined as Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) and is a complex syndrome mostly affecting broilers with some episodes in turkeys as well. The syndrome manifests itself with symptoms like lameness, starting at 3 weeks of age and resulting in lowered feed intake, reduced weight gain, and up to 5-7% mortality.
We normally think of stress as psychophysical fatigue, but stress is medically defined as the functional response of an organism to any kind of stimulus (stressor, that can be of any intensity and duration). Stressors can have different nature (microbial, toxic, thermal, traumatic, emotional) and alter the neurohormonal equilibrium of the organism, leading to an overproduction of cortisol, the “stress hormone”. During their life, reared animals are exposed to many stressors.
During the rearing cycle, chickens can experience different health problems. For what concern bacterial infections, in the very first period of life, one of the most common causes of chicken illness and death is omphalitis, often due to E. coli infections.
Since animals are reared in intensive conditions, antibiotics are needed to treat bacterial infections, but they are also very well known because of their effect on animal feed conversion, growth, and performance.
Meat is increasingly consumed globally so that the farming industry is constantly improving animal production. In poultry, genetics and nutrition for broilers are continuously selected to answer this demand, improving animals’ performance and final weight.
Aim: In vitro and in vivo challenge studies were undertaken to develop an in-feed additive of microencapsulated propionic, sorbic acids and pure botanicals to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers at slaughter age.
The reduction of Salmonella prevalence in broilers is a priority in European Union agricultural policies because treatment with antibiotics is forbidden by Regulation (EC) 2160/2003. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a microencapsulated blend of sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds (i.e., chemically synthesized botanicals; SAB) on the reduction of the cecal prevalence and contents of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar and Enteritidis in experimentally infected chickens.
Poultry industry is facing many different pathologies that affect not only animal health but also their live performance. For example, C. perfringens (with coccidia as a predisposing factor) causes necrotic enteritis (NE), with billion dollars losses every year.
Kinky back is a complex syndrome mostly affecting broilers with some episodes in turkeys as well, defined in medical terms as Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO). The rapid growth of heavy birds during the first phase of life is often accompanied by an inadequate skeleton’s development.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry intestinal disease caused by the proliferation of toxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens (CP), with coccidia infections being the best-known predisposing factor. CP causes subclinical infections, with chronic damage and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and significant loss in performance. The increase in NE in the poultry industry requires new strategies to improve the growth of the animals by supporting intestinal health in challenging conditions.
The anticoccidial activity of thymol, carvacrol, and saponins was assessed in an in vitro model of coccidiosis. Eimeria spp. sporozoites were collected from field samples, characterized, and used for 2 different invasion assays on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK).
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